예약금없는출장샵
  • 하동수안보 마사지
  • 제주출장샵
  • 전주출장안마
  • 고흥정자 안마방
  • 하동출장맛사지ζ예약금없는출장샵ヒ하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동다낭 마사지﹞↠〖하동가산 안마방〗»하동선릉역 안마방♪하동수원 태국 마사지ツ하동목포 안마방☂하동마사지 대딸╙하동공유 마사지 찌라시

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    대전출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    하동출장맛사지☰24시출장샵┓하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동홈케어 마사지﹞♢〖하동상암동 안마방〗♟하동시화 안마방⇀하동항문 마사지◤하동턱 마사지☪하동비염 마사지﹌하동안마방 아침

    The governments of more than 190 nations 춘천청라 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    하동출장맛사지⇪24시출장샵⇍하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동마카오 마사지﹞⇛〖하동여성전용 마사지 구인〗♖하동하노이 마사지◑하동안마방 영상メ하동신데렐라 안마방←하동광대뼈 축소 마사지╊하동안마방 초이스

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    하동출장맛사지╏출장부르는법ク하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동청라 마사지﹞♦〖하동신포동 마사지〗↗하동태국 마사지 토렌트γ하동마사지 검색█하동안마방 ts✑하동안마방 투샷♟하동출장 사기

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 제주출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    하동출장맛사지↲예약금없는출장샵♡하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동감성 마사지﹞❤〖하동영대 안마방〗➧하동얼굴 마사지 기계♬하동창녕 마사지⇚하동안마방 실장┅하동해수욕 마사지▄하동안마방 아줌마

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 철원푸켓 크리스틴 러브 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    하동출장맛사지W24시출장샵☈하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동마송 안마방﹞0〖하동파주 마사지〗エ하동안마방 nf 뜻↢하동커플 마사지☜하동마사지 출장⇗하동신림 아로마 마사지▦하동유방 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 원주출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    하동출장맛사지하동마사지방

  • 진안안마
  • 하동마송 여관
  • 하동출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    하동출장맛사지◀예약☜하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동범계 안마방﹞»〖하동서산시 안마방〗◐하동비키니 마사지❀하동혼자 안마방▩하동안마방 업소┽하동출장 선입금レ하동근육 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 시흥정왕동 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 천안출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    경산구미 봉곡동 마사지 진주출장샵 경상남도림프 마사지 금기 사항
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    하동출장맛사지⇖24시출장샵♂하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동자궁 마사지﹞⇢〖하동경주 안마방〗▪하동강릉 여관↕하동오십견 마사지↽하동상해 마사지↔하동창원 출장 숙소♪하동운서동 안마방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 보성nhdta 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    하동출장맛사지☣24시출장샵↗하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동안마방 유출﹞♭〖하동군포 안마방〗➛하동유재석 안마방▣하동스웨디시 마사지 정의囍하동마사지 야.동╗하동순천 안마방❈하동하드코어 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 진주출장안마 .

    군산실제 일본 안마방
    산청미금역 마사지 군산출장샵 울산안마방 전화기록
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    하동출장맛사지⇐예약금없는출장샵➠하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동마사지 gif﹞↾〖하동궐동 안마방〗▤하동부산 연산동 안마방↚하동삼산동 안마방ユ하동트랜스젠더 안마방♝하동모텔 찌라시▌하동안마방 혼자

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 창원출장샵 .

    하동출장맛사지╔예약금없는출장샵☠하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동마사지 홈런﹞┵〖하동출장서비스〗┰하동정액 마사지☭하동구의역 마사지➻하동용암동 모텔▷하동단체 안마방✓하동베이징 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 대구출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 익산이천 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    하동출장맛사지1예약§하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동성남 마사지﹞☢〖하동안마방 마사지〗♐하동국노 토렌트£하동안마방 시스템❁하동압구정 마사지§하동마사지 기획물»하동정읍 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    하동출장맛사지﹄예약✣하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동타이페이 마사지﹞☏〖하동일반인 마사지〗ミ하동강릉 마사지♩하동해운대 아가씨▪하동판상근 마사지↕하동가산 마사지♡하동출장 선입금

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 용인마사지 야동 토렌트 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 전주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 서울출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 화성공유 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 광주출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    하동출장맛사지○출장부르는법☳하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동경주 동천동 안마방﹞▶〖하동아줌마 안마방〗♛하동스포츠 마사지 후기◐하동이기광 안마방╇하동일본 마사지 야동╭하동마사지 단속 시간➧하동갑상선 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 서울출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 온라인카지노 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    하동출장맛사지ⓞ예약금없는출장샵♪하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동안산 조건 만남﹞╘〖하동김포 타이 마사지〗↔하동삼산동 마사지⊙하동거유 마사지♕하동안마방 tumblr┌하동커플 마사지 후기├하동안마방 초이스

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    함안세부 마사지 엑스트라
    카지노사이트 안산거제도 여관 dr-choi.xyz
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    하동출장맛사지ツ24시출장샵►하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트﹝하동태국 마사지 서비스﹞❈〖하동송우리 안마방〗─하동마사지 야동☑하동안마방 마사지➼하동스포츠마사지♫하동출장 서비스↬하동화명동 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.하동출장맛사지하동퇴폐↪하동카카오출장♗〖하동안마방 단속 확률〗하동성인마사지➻하동전립선 마사지 영상➦하동마사지 나무위키┮하동안마방 청룡열차τ온라인카지노예약금없는출장샵하동오피스 걸♪하동대전 여관⇂『하동화정 안마방』하동여관 아가씨↫하동조건 만남♬하동강서구 마사지▪하동포항 마사지 후기▩하동출장맛사지인천모텔 출장마사지하동마사지 팁☣하동안마방 대물►<하동신천 안마방>하동동두천 안마방→하동안마방 순서☇하동안마방 물다이☪하동타이마사지 팁♮하동성인 마사지↶하동안마방 코스☢〈하동상대보호구역〉하동서현 안마방▣하동검암 안마방┠하동부산 출장 서비스0하동종아리 마사지 기계ⓛ하동다낭 밤문화 마사지♣하동일산 안마방 가격┛〔하동강남역 마사지〕하동상암동 안마방♩하동부산대 안마방♝하동안마방 잠☛하동당진 마사지╪하동엑소 안마방↟하동향남 안마방▷〖하동마사지 단속 시간〗하동성남 마사지✎하동공유 마사지큐하동해운대 모텔╇하동세r시 마사지0출장부르는법속초가락시장 마사지예약금없는출장샵하동헬로 마사지└하동안마방 대딸⚘〈하동송도 안마방〉하동신림 모텔●하동여관 비용◥하동안마방 몰카 torrent❧하동출장미인아가씨☏하동출장맛사지하동출장맛사지바카라사이트하동여주 모텔 추천하동안마방 내상하동마사지 업소하동일본 안마방하동출장맛사지하동안산 대딸방♥하동박중현 안마방⇪【하동안마방 몰카】하동마사지 ㅅㅅ☪하동눈커지는 마사지┛하동안마방 찾기↦하동마사지 자격증 종류❖수원안마방 첫경험

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

    Topics